Saturday, May 28, 2016

Risky Business: Framing Statistics

The Gist: Medical literature frequently frames effect size using relative and absolute risks in ways that intentionally alter the appearance of an intervention, an example of framing bias. Effect sizes seem larger using relative risk and smaller using absolute risk [1,2].

Part of our 15 Minutes - 'Stats are the Dark Force?' residency lecture series
Risk from Lauren Westafer on Vimeo.

Perneger and colleagues surveyed physicians and patients about the efficacy of 4 new drugs. They were presented with the following scenarios:
While these numbers reflect the same data, patients and physicians selected that the drug that "reduced mortality by 1/3" was "clearly better" [3].  This indicates both parties are susceptible to the cognitive tricks statistics, particularly the way that relative risk make numbers appear larger and the ways absolute risk makes numbers appear smaller.  Authors can consistently switch between relative and absolute risk to maximize the appearance of benefit and minimize risks, as seen in the following abstract:

Perhap authors should be encouraged to report statistics consistently, using relative OR absolute rather than switching between the two to give the appearance of maximum benefit and minimal risk.

References:
1. Barratt A. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. Relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 171(4):353-358. 2004
2. Malenka DJ, Baron JA, Johansen S, Wahrenberger JW, Ross JM. The framing effect of relative and absolute risk. Journal of general internal medicine. 1993;8(10):543-8.
3. Perneger TV, Agoritsas T. Doctors and patients' susceptibility to framing bias: a randomized trial. Journal of general internal medicine. 26(12):1411-7. 2011.

4 comments:

  1. https://afu.ac.ae/ar mas-program-goals

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thank you very much for sharing such a beautiful article.
    หนังออนไลน์

    ReplyDelete
  3. Dr Itua cure my HIV, I have been a ARV Consumption for 10 years. i have been in pains until i came across Dr Itua on blogs site.I emailed him about my details of my HIV and my location i explained every thing to him and he told me that there is nothing to be scared of that he will cured me, he gave me guarantee,He ask me to pay for items fees so when i'm cured I will show gratitude I did and giving testimony of his healing herbs is what I'm going to do for the rest of you out there having HIV and other disease can see the good work of Dr Itua.I received his herbal medicine through EMS Courier service who delivered to my post office within 5 working days.Dr Itua is an honest man and I appreciate him for his good work.My GrandMa called him to appreciate him and rest of my friends did too,Is a joy to me that I'm free of taking Pills and having that fat belle is a nightmare.you will understand what i'm talking about if you have same problem I was having then not now though.I'm free and healthy Big Thanks To Dr Itua Herbal Center.I have his calendar too that he recently sent me,He Cure all kind disease Like,Cancer,Herpes,Hiv,Hepatitis B,Fibroid,Diabetes,Dercum,Copd ,and also Bring back Ex Lover Back..Here his Contact .drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com Or Whats_app Number +2348149277967

    ReplyDelete